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How Fishing Cooperatively Saves Species

I was reading an article in the New York Times, written by Aaron E. Hirsch, a biologist and researcher, about the fishing practices of the people in the Bay of Los Angeles, down in Mexico.  One very strong point presented was that fishermen who have a vested and local interest in the area are less likely to fish an area out than commercial vessels from another country who know that they may never come back to harvest from that region again.

Over the years, overfishing has been responsible for the severe decline or extinction of several species of marine wildlife, from fish to inverts.  It’s not just the large fish which have fallen.  Crustaceans, many varieties of shellfish,  sea cucumbers, these join with grouper and other fish with numbers that are a mere fraction of their numbers from just a score of years ago.  Consistently, the guilty party is overfishing.

When fishermen go out together, fishing collectively, they retain that pride and personal investment.  They are out there every day, so they can see trends and respond to them quickly.  They have a vested interest in maintaining a healthy breeding population.  Japanese fishing vessels, on the other hand, are there for the maximum profit in minimum timeframe, and may not have recognized the depleted numbers (if they’d have cared in the first place.)

This approach may simply be Capitalism, expressed in another way.  Regardless, it’s working –very well. Waters fished by people who have a vested interest in those waters’ productivity are consistently healthy in their numbers.  Meanwhile, toxic waters and overfishing, reef destruction and other factors caused by human indiscretions are causing species to drop like flies.  Fishing coops may be the only functional solution.  So long as the unprincipled rape of the oceans is perpetuated by the Japanese for their own greed, declines will continue.  The governments of those countries need to protect their waters from such volatile exploitations.

Only by protecting the ocean can we bring life and health to ourselves.

Overfishing Reef Fish Devastates Breeding Populations

Malaysia is amongst the South Pacific destinations that are eagerly gobbling up reef fish in unprecedented numbers. Coral trout, spotted lobster, prawns, giant grouper, and many other species are all fair game for both tourist and local appetites along this string of islands. But they’re not the only ones demanding the fish. All across southeast Asia and China, the demand for reef fish is devastating their numbers in the Coral Triangle, that protected place which is home to the most dense diversity of their breeding populations.

Conservation Biology magazine, a scientific publication, reveals that breeding within the Coral Triangle, home to 3/4 of the coral species on the planet, has dropped nearly 80 percent in recent years. Overfishing is expected to be the cause. Fishermen tend to harvest most heavily when a species is spawning and congregated in great numbers for that breeding, according to University of Hong Kong biologist Yvonne Sadovy, writing on behalf of herself as well as four other nations involved in the study, including the U.S.A.

“The Coral Triangle has relatively few spawning aggregations reported in the communities we went to,” Dr. Sadovy wrote. “We think that this might be due to the more heavily fished (overall) condition of reef fisheries in many parts of the Coral Triangle, where there is uncontrolled fishing and high demand for live groupers for the international live fish trade.”

The Hong Kong reef fish market has grown into a 810 million dollar a year business, according to the Worldwide Fund for Nature, which monitors the market. Demand for exotic fish is especially high in Shanghai and Beijing. This translates to a large tourist population arriving where bargains on the reef fish can be had. Local prices are less than half of what people are used to paying in China, for example.

Over a quarter of the planet’s 161 reef species are currently threatened or near threatened, the grouper being at the top of that list. These long-living fish grow to be as much as 8 feet long in the wild, taking as long as 5 years to become reproductive, but most of them are taken to market long before they can do so. This alone accounts for their decline.

The Coral Triangle is shared by six countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Solomon Islands and East Timor. There is no specific enforcement of fishing regulations within the region, so dynamite and cyanide are both regularly used there. This equates to an even greater devastation to both the fish and the reefs that support them.

It’s essential that we come to see the breeding seasons as a special time for the fish themselves, during which they are immune to fishing, rather than seeing them as an easy and bountiful catch (as is the case with salmon in Alaska.) But alongside this, we must bear in mind that the fishermen have families to feed as well, and that this industry feeds far more than just those who eat the fish. Whatever solution we come up with must account for their needs. Simply imposing regulations will merely push the fishing underground, making a black market for them, and inadvertently making the problem worse.

What we do does make a difference. We have a direct impact upon the planet and its interconnected wildlife. It is essential that we step up to protect the ocean — for our own sakes.